Manual The Sociology of Gender and the Family: Families and their Relatives

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Young Vietnamese women faced a severe deficit of male partners during the s and s due to population growth, war, and excess male migration. On the other end of the diaspora, overseas Vietnamese men have faced an even greater shortage of marriageable Vietnamese women during the s and s. On a global stage, however, marriage gradient norms no longer seem to be highly emphasized and are even being reversed.

This glorification of the west may contribute to the clash of dreams that both Asian women and Asian immigrant men experience in their relationships. However, such desires may not be reciprocated by immigrant husbands who desire a more traditional gender relationship at home. Future studies on transnational families should consider using comparative and multisited research designs.

Scholars who study transnational dynamics within families should examine not only the standpoint of the migrant but also the experiences of those who have remained in or returned to their homeland. As our world becomes increasingly globalized, it is important for scholars and practitioners to be responsive to the dynamic and fluid nature of transnational family arrangements as well as individual and family movement and change over time Carling, Menjivar, and Schmalzbauer Most studies on transnational families have focused on only one generation. By comparing family narratives across generations in a paired sample such as parachute kids and their parents , research will be able to address how individuals of different generations understand their transnational experiences and articulate generational differences, and how power dynamics operate within transnational families.

Scholars should explore how the experiences of transnational migration affect later life family relationships, particularly elder care and intergenerational support. Most studies on transnational families demonstrate great emotional nuances, such as feelings of shame, guilt, desire, ambivalence, and loneliness. However, these critical aspects of the migration experience have seldom been theorized. Empirically, research on transnational fatherhood and transnational childhood deserves much more scholarly attention.

We know much about the experiences and hardships of transnational migrant mothers but have very little knowledge of transnational fathers or their experiences and relationships. Scholarly inquiry on transnational children is also largely absent, both for children who are left behind and children who migrate for educational purposes.

Introduction to Marriage and Family

Finally, studies should also examine the psychosocial development and adjustment of transnational children. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.

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Abstract Transnational family living arrangements are becoming increasingly prevalent as movement around the world and technological advancements become more accessible. Transnational Intimacy Transnational romance and relationships comprise another aspect of research on transnational families.

Example Answer for Questions 4, 5 and 6 Paper 2: A Level Sociology, June 2017 (AQA)

Future Directions Future studies on transnational families should consider using comparative and multisited research designs. DOI: Google Scholar. Wiley Online Library Google Scholar. Crossref Google Scholar. References Related Information.


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Family Relationships and Gender Roles

In general, women feel more independent and more prepared to live a large portion of their adult lives without a spouse or domestic partner than they did in the s Roberts The decision to marry or not to marry can be based a variety of factors including religion and cultural expectations. Asian individuals are the most likely to marry while African Americans are the least likely to marry Venugopal Additionally, individuals who place no value on religion are more likely to be unmarried than those who place a high value on religion.

For black women, however, the importance of religion made no difference in marital status Bakalar In general, being single is not a rejection of marriage; rather, it is a lifestyle that does not necessarily include marriage. By age forty, according to census figures, 20 percent of women and 14 of men will have never married U. It is often cited that half of all marriages end in divorce.

"Is Equality Tearing the Family Apart" by Joel Anderson

This statistic has made many people cynical when it comes to marriage, but it is misleading. Using National Center for Health Statistics data from that show a marriage rate of 7. This reasoning is deceptive, however, because instead of tracing actual marriages to see their longevity or lack thereof , this compares what are unrelated statistics: that is, the number of marriages in a given year does not have a direct correlation to the divorces occurring that same year.

Research published in the New York Times took a different approach—determining how many people had ever been married, and of those, how many later divorced. The result? According to this analysis, U. Another way to calculate divorce rates would be through a cohort study. For instance, we could determine the percentage of marriages that are intact after, say, five or seven years, compared to marriages that have ended in divorce after five or seven years. Sociological researchers must remain aware of research methods and how statistical results are applied. As illustrated, different methodologies and different interpretations can lead to contradictory, and even misleading, results. Sociologists study families on both the macro and micro level to determine how families function. Sociologists may use a variety of theoretical perspectives to explain events that occur within and outside of the family. When considering the role of family in society, functionalists uphold the notion that families are an important social institution and that they play a key role in stabilizing society.

They also note that family members take on status roles in a marriage or family. The family—and its members—perform certain functions that facilitate the prosperity and development of society. Sociologist George Murdock conducted a survey of societies and determined that there are four universal residual functions of the family: sexual, reproductive, educational, and economic Lee According to Murdock, the family which for him includes the state of marriage regulates sexual relations between individuals.

He does not deny the existence or impact of premarital or extramarital sex, but states that the family offers a socially legitimate sexual outlet for adults Lee This outlet gives way to reproduction, which is a necessary part of ensuring the survival of society. Once children are produced, the family plays a vital role in training them for adult life. As the primary agent of socialization and enculturation, the family teaches young children the ways of thinking and behaving that follow social and cultural norms, values, beliefs, and attitudes.

Parents teach their children manners and civility. A well-mannered child reflects a well-mannered parent. Parents also teach children gender roles.

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Gender roles are an important part of the economic function of a family. In each family, there is a division of labor that consists of instrumental and expressive roles. Men tend to assume the instrumental roles in the family, which typically involve work outside of the family that provides financial support and establishes family status. Women tend to assume the expressive roles, which typically involve work inside of the family which provides emotional support and physical care for children Crano and Aronoff According to functionalists, the differentiation of the roles on the basis of sex ensures that families are well balanced and coordinated.

When family members move outside of these roles, the family is thrown out of balance and must recalibrate in order to function properly. For example, if the father assumes an expressive role such as providing daytime care for the children, the mother must take on an instrumental role such as gaining paid employment outside of the home in order for the family to maintain balance and function. Conflict theorists are quick to point out that U. Many people in the United States are resistant to government intervention in the family: parents do not want the government to tell them how to raise their children or to become involved in domestic issues.

Conflict theory highlights the role of power in family life and contends that the family is often not a haven but rather an arena where power struggles can occur. This exercise of power often entails the performance of family status roles. Conflict theorists may study conflicts as simple as the enforcement of rules from parent to child, or they may examine more serious issues such as domestic violence spousal and child , sexual assault, marital rape, and incest.

The first study of marital power was performed in Researchers found that the person with the most access to value resources held the most power. As money is one of the most valuable resources, men who worked in paid labor outside of the home held more power than women who worked inside the home Blood and Wolfe Conflict theorists find disputes over the division of household labor to be a common source of marital discord.

Household labor offers no wages and, therefore, no power. Studies indicate that when men do more housework, women experience more satisfaction in their marriages, reducing the incidence of conflict Coltrane In general, conflict theorists tend to study areas of marriage and life that involve inequalities or discrepancies in power and authority, as they are reflective of the larger social structure. Interactionists view the world in terms of symbols and the meanings assigned to them LaRossa and Reitzes The family itself is a symbol.

BJR: Are there any sociological lessons that you can share from the story you share in this book? In sociology, we often say that things are not always as they seem. This is most definitely true. My book sheds light on how abuse is not black or white, and that there is multidimensionality to abusers. In my case, my father was both adoring and abusive; both are my lived realities.

Also, in the book you learn that I was raised in an upper middle class Jewish home, and domestic violence is still very much cloaked in silence, secrecy and shame in households like that. The book punctures assumptions around abusers, survivors, marriage, divorce, social class, etc. Back in college, I got interested in homelessness among children and adults. I wanted to understand the structural conditions that lead some people to a life on the streets.

We know there is a connection between homelessness and violence. As time has unfolded, I have found myself compelled by how traumatic experiences of violence leave us homeless, even metaphorically, in our bodies, in our relationships, and just in our very existence. Writing memoir about family violence became a way to come home to myself.