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Autoimmune Diseases of the Skin
The concept of molecular mimicry describes a situation in which a foreign antigen can initiate an immune response in which a T or B cell component cross-recognizes self.
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The cross reactive immune response is responsible for the autoimmune disease state. According to this theory the effector function of the immune response is mediated by the glycans polysaccharides displayed by the cells and humoral components of the immune system. Individuals with autoimmunity have alterations in their glycosylation profile such that a proinflammatory immune response is favored. It is further hypothesized that individual autoimmune diseases will have unique glycan signatures. According to the hygiene hypothesis , high levels of cleanliness expose children to fewer antigens than in the past, causing their immune systems to become overactive and more likely to misidentify own tissues as foreign, resulting in autoimmune or allergic conditions such as asthma.
For a disease to be regarded as an autoimmune disease it needs to answer to Witebsky's postulates first formulated by Ernest Witebsky and colleagues in and modified in :  . The first estimate of US prevalence for autoimmune diseases as a group was published in by Jacobson, et al.
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They reported US prevalence to be around 9 million, applying prevalence estimates for 24 diseases to a US population of million. The estimated community prevalence, which takes into account the observation that many people have more than one autoimmune disease, was 4.
In both autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, the condition arises through aberrant reactions of the human adaptive or innate immune systems. In autoimmunity, the patient's immune system is activated against the body's own proteins. In chronic inflammatory diseases, neutrophils and other leukocytes are constitutively recruited by cytokines and chemokines , leading to tissue damage.
Mitigation of inflammation by activation of anti-inflammatory genes and the suppression of inflammatory genes in immune cells is a promising therapeutic approach. Stem cell transplantation is being studied and has shown promising results in certain cases.
Traditionally it was believed that the immune system was unable to react against the body's own tissues, a concept described by the German immunologist Paul Ehrlich as "horror autotoxicus". In this theory was challenged by the discovery of a substance in the serum of patients with paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria that reacted with red blood cells. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Autoimmune diseases Young woman with the typical " butterfly rash " found in systemic lupus erythematosus Specialty Rheumatology , immunology , gastroenterology , neurology , dermatology Symptoms Depends on the condition. See also: List of autoimmune diseases.
Autoimmune Diseases of the Skin: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Management
Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 5 October Current Pharmaceutical Design. Archived from the original on The Lancet Neurology. Ananthanarayan and Paniker's Textbook of Microbiology. Retrieved American Journal of Public Health. National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved 21 December Trends in Immunology. McGraw-Hill Professional. Bibcode : Natur.
J Autoimmun. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology. Autoimmunity Reviews. Immunology Today. Nov Nat Med. J Immunol. Nature Reviews. Historical perspective on evidence-based immunology.
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